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Collagen is extracted from animal skin. In addition to collagen, the skin contains proteoglycans such as hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate. They contain a large number of polar groups, are moisturizing factors, and prevent the conversion of tyrosine in the skin into melanin. Therefore, collagen has the functions of pure natural moisturizing, whitening, anti-wrinkle, freckle removal, etc., and can be widely used in beauty products. The chemical composition and structure of collagen make it the foundation of beauty. Collagen is similar to the structure of human skin collagen. It is a water-insoluble fibrous sugar-containing protein. The molecule is rich in amino acids and hydrophilic groups. It has certain surface activity and good compatibility. A lot of hydroxyl groups, so it has a pretty good moisturizing effect. At 70% relative humidity, it can still retain 45% of its own weight. The test proves that: 0.01% pure collagen solution can form a good water-retaining layer and supply all the water needed by the skin.
With the increase of age, the ability of fibroblasts to synthesize decreases. If collagen is lacking in the skin, the collagen fibers will be co-solidified, reducing the intercellular mucopolysaccharide, and the skin will lose its softness, elasticity and gloss, and aging will occur. The dermis has fiber breakage, fat atrophy, and reduced secretion of sweat glands and sebaceous glands, making the skin appear a series of aging phenomena such as pigmentation and wrinkles. When it is used as an active substance in cosmetics, the latter can diffuse deep into the skin. The tyrosine contained in it competes with the tyrosine in the skin and combines with the tyrosinase catalytic center, thereby inhibiting the melanin It can increase the collagen activity in the skin, maintain the moisture of the stratum corneum and the integrity of the fiber structure, promote the metabolism of the skin tissue, and have a good moisturizing, moisturizing and wrinkle-reducing beauty effect on the skin. As early as the early 1970s, the United States was the first to introduce bovine collagen for injection, which is used to remove spots and wrinkles and repair scars.
However, in cosmetics, purely used as nutritional skin care raw materials usually require molecular weight below 2KD to allow the hydrolyzed collagen to penetrate into the skin. In addition to the requirement for hydrolyzed collagen to have moisturizing properties, hair care cosmetics should also have a certain film-forming property. Therefore, the molecular weight of the hydrolyzed collagen is required to be higher.
Collagen can also be used in food. As early as the twelfth century, St. Hilde-gard of Bingen described the use of calf cartilage soup as a medicine to treat joint pain. For a long time, some collagen-containing products were used by people. Think it's good for joints. Because it has some properties suitable for food: Food grades usually have a white appearance, a soft taste, a light taste, and easy digestion. It can reduce blood triglycerides and cholesterol, and can increase certain essential trace elements that are lacking in the body to maintain it within a relatively normal range. It is an ideal hypolipidemic food. In addition, studies have shown that collagen can help eliminate aluminum in the body, reduce the accumulation of aluminum in the body, reduce the harm of aluminum to the human body, and promote the growth of nails and hair to a certain extent. Type II collagen is a major protein in articular cartilage and is therefore a potential autoantigen. After oral administration, T cells can induce immune tolerance and thus suppress T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. Collagen polypeptide is a product with high digestion and absorption, and a molecular weight of about 2,000 to 30,000, which is obtained after degradation treatment of collagen or gelatin by protease or the like.
Some qualities of collagen make it useful as a functional substance and nutrient in many foods. It has advantages that are difficult to compare with other alternative materials: the helical structure of collagen macromolecules and the presence of crystalline regions make it a certain thermal stability; The fiber structure makes the collagen material show strong toughness and strength, which is suitable for the preparation of thin film materials. Because the collagen molecular chain contains a large number of hydrophilic groups, it has a strong ability to bind with water. This property makes collagen in food It can be used as a filler and gel; collagen swells in acidic and alkaline media. This property is also used in the processing of collagen-based materials.
Collagen powder can directly act on meat products to affect the tenderness of meat and the texture of muscles after cooking. Studies have shown that collagen is very important for the formation of raw meat and cooking meat texture. The higher the collagen content, the harder the meat texture. Fish tenderization is considered to be related to V-type collagen degradation, and the lysis of peripheral collagen fibers caused by the destruction of peptide bonds is considered to be the main cause of muscle tenderization. By destroying the hydrogen bonds in the collagen molecules, the original tight supercoil structure is destroyed, and gelatin with smaller molecules and relatively loose structures can be used to improve the tenderness of the meat and increase its use value, making it good Quality, increase protein content, both taste good and nutritious. Japan has also developed animal collagen as a raw material, which is hydrolyzed by collagen hydrolase and formulated to develop new condiments and sake, which not only have special flavors, but also supplement some amino acids.
With the increasing proportion of various types of sausage products in meat products, natural casing products are seriously lacking. Researchers are working on the development of alternatives. Collagen casings with collagen as the main ingredient are nutrient-rich, high-protein substances. During the heat treatment process, as the water and fat evaporate and dissolve, collagen has almost the same shrinkage rate as meat , And other edible packaging materials have not been found to have this quality. In addition, collagen itself has the function of immobilizing enzymes, has antioxidant properties, and can improve the flavor and quality of food. Product stress is directly proportional to the amount of collagen, while strain is inversely proportional.
Collagen is an important component of human bones, especially cartilage tissue. Collagen is like a small hole-filled net in the bone, it will firmly retain the calcium that will be lost. Without this net full of small holes, even if it is supplemented with excessive calcium, it will be lost in vain. The characteristic amino acid hydroxyproline of collagen is a tool for transporting calcium to bone cells in plasma. Bone collagen in osteocytes is a binder of hydroxyapatite, which together with hydroxyapatite constitute the main body of the bone. The essence of osteoporosis is that the rate of synthesizing collagen can not keep up with the need. In other words, the rate of new collagen production is lower than the rate of mutation or aging of old collagen. Studies have shown that if collagen is lacking, no amount of calcium supplementation can prevent osteoporosis. Therefore, only by ingesting enough calcium-binding collagen can calcium be digested and absorbed faster in the body, and Quickly reach the bone site and deposit.
Collagen and polyethylene BIGE alkanone are dissolved in citric acid buffer to produce collagen-PVP polymer (C-PVP). It is not only effective for strengthening injured bones, but also highly safe, even for long-term continuous Neither the experiment nor the clinical trial showed any lymphadenopathy, DNA damage, no liver and kidney metabolic disorders, and no anti-C-PVP antibody.
Collagen powder for feed is a protein product obtained by processing by-products such as leather tannage leathers, skin edges and corners by using physical, chemical or biotechnology methods. The solid waste produced after tanning and trimming in the tannery is collectively called tanning waste residue, and the main component of its dry matter is collagen. After treatment, it can be used as an animal-derived protein nutritional additive to replace or partially replace imported fishmeal for the production of mixed and compound feed, which has better feeding effect and economic benefits. It has a high protein content, is rich in more than 18 kinds of amino acids, contains calcium, phosphorus, iron, manganese, selenium and other mineral elements, and has an aromatic taste. Studies have shown that hydrolyzed collagen powder can partially or completely replace fish meal or soybean meal in growing-finishing pig diets, but the addition ratio cannot exceed 6%. When the content reaches 8%, it significantly reduces production performance and diet digestibility and increases feeding cost.
Growth tests and digestion tests have also been performed to evaluate the effectiveness of collagen in replacing fish meal in aquafeeds. In the growth test, 2%, 4% collagen, and other weights were used instead of fishmeal in a basic feed (control group, containing 12% fishmeal) to breed heterozygous silver carp with a total weight of 6.5g (315 fish in total) for 35 days. The body weight gain rates were 71.3%, 70.9%, and 71.9%, respectively. There was no significant difference between the groups (P> 0.05). The digestion test was carried out using a heterogeneous silver carp with an average body weight of 110 g. The protein digestibility of collagen is 97.3%. The results show that collagen has a high digestion and absorption rate, and can partially replace fish meal without affecting the weight gain of allogynogenetic silver carp.
The relationship between dietary copper deficiency and collagen content in the heart of mice has been studied. Analysis by SDS-PAGE and staining with Coomassie Brilliant Blue showed that detection of altered additional metabolic characteristics of collagen can predict copper deficiency; because liver fibrosis can reduce protein content, it can also be determined by measuring collagen content in the liver To predict liver fibrosis. Anoectochilusformosanus water extract (AFE) can reduce liver fibrosis induced by CCl4 and reduce liver collagen content. Collagen is also the main component of the sclera, and it is also very important for the eyes. If the synthesis of collagen in the sclera decreases and the degradation increases, it will lead to myopia.
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